Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition that occurs at any age when the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to absorb and use glucose and other nutrients from food to store fat and build up protein. Without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become higher than normal, resulting in complications including high blood pressure, obesity, and heart conditions.
A blood test can measure the amount of sugar in the body for diabetes diagnosis. Because close relatives (children, siblings) of a person with type 1 diabetes have an increased risk for the disease, genetic testing can help determine whether a family member is at risk of developing diabetes. Understanding a predisposition to type 1 diabetes mellitus, also known as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), allows for early adoption of lifestyle changes to help reduce the risk of the disease or minimize its effects.
Chart 1 is adopted from publications referenced below.
Chart 1: Genetic Markers in Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes.
Kashi Clinical Laboratories utilizes a combination of PCR-SSO (polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide typing) and SBT (sequence based typing) to determine the patient's DQB1*03:02-DQB1*02:01 and HLA-DQ6 genotype.
Kashi's in-house laboratory and experienced health professionals ensure that customer service is personal, timely, and tailored to every patient's needs.
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- Pietropaolo M et al. Progression to insulin-requiring diabetes in seronegative prediabetic subjects: the role of two HLA-DQ high-risk haplotypes. Diabetologia. 2002; 45:66.
- Pugliese A et al. HLA-DQB1*0602 is associated with dominant protection from diabetes even among islet cell antibody-positive first-degree relatives of patients with IDDM. Diabetes. 1995; 44:608.
- Rewers M et al. Newborn screening for HLA markers associated with IDDM: diabetes autoimmunity study in the young (DAISY). Diabetologia. 1996; 39:807.
- Thomson G et al. Genetic heterogeneity, modes of inheritance, and risk estimates for a joint study of Caucasians with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Hum Genet. 1988; 43:799.
- Undlien DE et al. HLA-encoded genetic predisposition in IDDM: DR4 subtypes may be associated with different degrees of protection. Diabetes. 1997; 46:143.
- McCulloch DK et al. Prediction of type 1 diabetes mellitus. UpToDate. Last Updated Apr 01, 2014.